Thursday, March 3, 2011

Илтгэл бэлтгэж байгаа оюутнуудынхаа анхааралд

Энэ жил орж байгаа гадаадын сэтгүүлзүйн ангийн оюутнуудад 2000 онд өөрийнхөө бичиж байсан танилцуулгыг харуулмаар санагдлаа. Монгол орон, Монголын хэвлэл мэдээллийн тухай энэ танилцуулгыг Олон улсыг сурвалжлахуй (International Reporting) хичээл дээр бэлтгэж байсан юм. Монголд очих гадаадын сэтгүүлчдэд зориулсан гарын авлага маягаар бэлтгэсэн энэ материал та нарын хичээл дээрээ бэлтгэх илтгэлд санаа өгөх болов уу гэж бодлоо.


Presentation on Mongolia & Mongolian Media


In the International Issues Reporting class, where discussions how to cover international news for audience in abroad and journalists own country were often raised, I deeply understood one thing. A journalist who is going to another country either as a representative of certain media organization or as a freelancer should carefully study the destination country and its media situation in advance. He/she needs not only basic information about the country but also some more detailed information in order to be prepared to live and work there for a while. In this meaning, the book “The World on a String” by Al Goodman and John Pollack presenting practical experiences of many stringers is very useful for international journalists. But above mentioned book does not contain any single example about foreign journalists who worked in Mongolia.

Although some people say that Mongolia is a country where nothing happens, many foreign journalists had and have experience in working in my country. Judging by increased number of journalists coming from outside in the last decade, I can say that there are many others wishing to come to Mongolia in the future. For those journalists I tried to prepare this small handout including country profile, comments on media environment, names of web sites to visit, titles of books to read, addresses of Mongolian diplomatic mission, phone numbers of foreign media representatives to contact and other useful information. This handout can be updated anytime if there is a subject to change and add more information.

Small, but Important Explanation about Mongolia

When I say that I am from Mongolia, some people ask “which Mongolia?” I try to explain them about my country as I can. My respond to this question is almost the same with Robert A.Rupen’s explanation in the introduction of his book “Mongols of the twentieth century”. He wrote, “All Mongols is divided into three main parts: Outer Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Byryat Mongolia. Of these, Outer Mongolia alone remains predominantly Mongol in population at the present time; Chinese outnumber Mongols in Inner Mongolia and Russians outnumber of Mongols in Byryat Mongolia. The Mongols of Inner Mongolia and Byryat Mongolia, however, resisted the Chinese and Russian assault on their lands and culture, and their resistance took the form of anti Russian and anti-Chinese movements of a national type, which overflowed political borders into Outer Mongolia and combined with nascent similar forces there. Revolutions in Russia and China resulted in Revolutions in Mongolia: as Russia and China go, so goes Mongolia. But despite the inherently weak and dependent position of the Mongols, due to facts of geography and demography, Mongols have tried to influence their own fate and they retain a strong nationalism-a sense of self-identity and “different-ness” After reading this passage many foreigners will know which Mongolia I am presenting.

Facts about Mongolia


Completely landlocked between two large neighbors - Russian Federation and China. It was immeasurably bigger during the period of Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan. Until the 20th century Mongolia was twice its present size and included a large chunk of Siberia and Inner Mongolia (now controlled by China).


Remarkably long frontiers with the Russian Federation and China: 4,673 km with China and 3,485 km with the Russian Federation. The total length of its borders is 7.678 km.




Lying in the center of the Asian continent, Mongolia covers an area of 1,566,5 Vast country - nearly 3 times the size of France and more than 4 times the United Kingdom. Mongolia is the 6th largest country in Asia and the 18th largest in the world.


One of the highest countries in the world with one of Eurasia's highest capitals. Average altitude: 1,580m above sea level. Ulaanbaatar: 1,350m above sea level. The highest point is the Huiten peak (4,653m) in the west and the lowest is the Khokh Nuur lake depression in the east - a more 532m above sea-level.


The high central Asian mountain ranges surrounding Mongolia on practically all sides form a formidable barrier against the humid masses of air moving from the Atlantic and the Pacific, thus establishing the dominance of a continental climate in Mongolia. The typical climatic features are sharp temperature fluctuations with the maximum annual amplitudes reaching 90C in Ulaanbaatar.Even the daily temperature may fluctuate by 20C-30C. The coldest month is January. In some regions, for instance in the northern part of the Khuvsgul aimag, the temperature drops to between 45C and 52C below zero. The hottest month is July. On the freater part of Mongolian territory the air temperature rises to 20C. In the south it is as high as 25C-30C. On the whole, the Mongolian climate is rather arid. The mean annual precipitation is 200 - 300mm of which 80 to 90 per cent falls within five months (May to September). Mongolia is the land of winds and especially sharp winds blow in spring. In the Gobi and steppe areas winds often develop into devastating storms, reaching a velocity of 15-25 meters per seconds. Ulaanbaatar is the coldest winter capital in the world, but enjoys a hot summer!


A remarkably sunny country, enjoying 250-300 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies.

Rainfall & Snow

Snow and rainfall are very low, the climate being arid. However, enough rain usually occurs in July and August to swell rivers, and snow blizzards can occur in winter. The Highest peaks have small glaciers.


Mountains dominate two-thirds of the country. Mongolia’s highest peaks are permanently snowcapped and with glaciers. Some 2,000 lakes exist, and the largest rivers exit Mongolia northwards to feed Lake Baikal in Siberia. The mountainous areas include relatively wet mountain meadow pastures and steppe regions. In contrast southern Mongolia is dominated by the Famous Gobi Desert.


Nearly 10% is forest, mainly conifers in the northern region next to Siberia. Most of Mongolia is wide open ‘steppe’ grasslands in transition with the arid lands of the Gobi Desert. The forests support wolf, wild boar, elk, moose, deer, caribou, antelope and brown bear. The steppes and forest margins support marmot, muskrat, fox, steppe fox and sable. Remote mountains support wild cats such as lynx and snow leopard. Mongolia is the home of the wild ass, wild camel, and wild sheep and also nocturnal yellow gobi bears. The wild horse (takhi) is being reintroduced from captive herds abroad. Bird life is rich and includes golden eagle, bearded vulture and other birds of prey, while the 2,000 lakes are a magnet for water birds including storks and even herring gull and relict gull. The 2,000 lakes support 50 species of fish unique to Mongolia.


Mongolian (noun and adjective).


2.3 million people, and one of the lowest population densities in the world. 1.5 inhabitants per death rate are below the world average. The life expectancy is 64.6 years for women and 62.1 for men.

Ethnic Groups

85% Mongol, mostly Khalkha Mongol. Also 7% Turkey (mainly Kazakh). 4.6% Tungusic and 3.4% other groups. Four million Mongols live outside Mongolia.


Mongolian Language is the First Language. Over 90% Khalkha Mongol (‘Mongolian Language’). The script is Cyrillic due to Russian influence but a switch back to traditional script has begin in Schools.Second Language Russian is spoken by many graduates, with many Mongolians formerly educated in Russia. English is replacing Russian as the second Language. Many graduates speak German and a little Spanish and French is spoken. Chinese not widely understood except in border areas.


High, in excess of 90%.


94% Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism, also elements of Shamanism. 6% Muslim (mainly in the southwest). Some Christian churches started to work since 1992 by support of foreigners.

Government of Mongolia

Parliamentary type of Government, with President second in authority to state Great Hural (Parliament).


1921 final independence from China. 1990 Democratic reform and shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union.


1924, 1936, 1960 and new constitution in 1992, some revision 1996.

Administrative subdivisions

21 aimags (provinces), the capital city (Ulaanbaatar), including 3 autonomous cities (Darkhan, Erdenet and Choir). The aimags are subdivided into somons, or district of which there are 298. The biggest aimag is Umnugov which occupies an area of 165, but due to its rigorous climatic conditions has the smallest population (only 42,400 people).

Gross Domestic Product

GDP per head of population was 359 US $ in 1995 (under estimate due to almost cashless barter economy in rural areas).

Mineral Output & Reserves

Mongolia produces 15% of the world’s fluorite, and is a major exporter of copper and molybdenum. Gold mining is now significant. Substantial reserves exits of copper, molybdenum, iron, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, tungsten, fluorspar and gold.

Energy Output & Reserves

Mongolia produces 5 million tonnes of coal (both hard and brown) a year, supplying coal-fired power stations for electricity generation and district heating schemes. Some coal is exported to Russia by rail in exchange for additional electricity. Coal reserves are immense, even by world standard - at least 100 billion tones, 20% hard coal and 80% lignite (brown coal). Wind power and solar power are used locally on a small scale, but the potential is considerable. Oil and gas production is very small but prospective drilling is in progress.


Agriculture accounts for more than a third of GDP and is the livelihood for half the population. Agricultural land is mainly permanent pasture for livestock and hay fogger. However, there is significant output of wheat, oats, barley and vegetables.


Industry also accounts for around a third of GDP, especially minerals (mainly copper), coal, animal products, building materials, food beverages etc.

Major Exports

Copper and molybdenum concentrates, fluorspar, cashmere, wool, hides and skins.

Major Imports

Petroleum products, industrial equipment, consumer goods.

Donor aid

Mongolia is a major recipient of donor aid notably loans from the Asian Development Bank, bilateral aid from many countries (especially from Japan, Germany, Denmark and USA) and grants for technical assistance, such as the European Union’s Tacis Program.


Currency is the Tugrug (MNT). 1 USD=1069 MNT


Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time National

Weight and Measures

The metric system

Electric current

220 volts/50HZ

TV system



Ulaanbaatar-Moscow, Beijing, Seoul, Osaka, Berlin, Almaty, Irkutsk, Ulaan-Ude, Hohhot

Railway links

Ulaanbaatar-Irkutsk, Moscow, Beijing

Sea access

Tianjin (China), Nakhodka (Russia)

Public Holidays

New year: December 31-January 1

Tsagaan sar-Lunar news year: 3 days in January or February set according to Lunar Calendar

Day of Mother and Child: June 1

National Holiday-Naadam Festival: July 11-13

Day of Independence: November 26

Country and area code


Facts about Mongolian Media

There are more than 838 newspapers, 51 TV studios, 24 radio stations, and one news agency in Mongolia. These are numbers of officially registered media outlets by the Ministry of Justice. All media must register by that Ministry paying fee equal to five dollars. Before that media organizations should be registered as a legal entity in tax service. Moreover, media owner or editor-in-chief should bring journalism diploma or certificate and a contract with Printing House to the Ministry of Justice. Both local media researchers and foreign experts consider the registration of media institutions by Government organization as a kind of censorship because the Ministry of Justice has a right to fine media or revoke registration for violation of the legal environment in which they operate. Besides the registration electronic media must apply for a frequency license from the Ministry of Infrastructure Development.

Mongolia has a Copyright law since 1994 and joined Bern Convention in 1998.

Most important law related to recent changes in media is the Freedom Press and Information Law adopted in August 1998. (See more explanation in the following comments “Is Mongolian Media free?”)


In fact, among the huge number of registered newspapers around 80 daily and weekly newspapers appear permanently. Print journalists face many obstacles caused by poor economy and infrastructure in the country. Most newspapers are published and distributed in urban area. Many local newspapers shut down due to financial situation and not having printing houses. Newspaper print is imported from Russia, China, Germany and France. Five daily newspapers are considered serious but they are bias because of supporting or affiliation of political parties, business groups or state organizations. For instance,

· “Udriin sonin” (Daily news) clearly supports Democratic Coalition, which represents a majority in the Parliament and leads the Government.

· “Zuuny medee” (Century news) clearly supports Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, which is minority in the Parliament and opposition to the Government.

· “Unuudur” (today) is owned by Mongol News Company and clearly supports the President.

· “Mongolyn medee” (Mongolian news) is owned by “Erel” business company and clearly supports Mongolian Democratic Socialist Party.

· Ulaanbaatar times” belongs to Capital City municipality office.

Most independent newspapers are tabloids. They are issued weekly or once in ten days due to financial reason and not sufficient number of staff. Most popular independent newspapers are “Seruuleg” (Alarm), “Khumuus” (People) and “Mongolyn neg udur” (One day of Mongolia).

Newspapers published in English:

· “Mongol Messenger”-MONTSAME news agency’s weekly newspaper. English editor: Michael Kohn.

· “UB Post”-owned by Mongol news company. English editor: Jessica Daccy. Tel: 352462, 352470

· “Business Times”-a newspaper of Mongolian Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

· Gobi business News”-published by Mercy Corps International. Editor-in-chief: Layton Croft.

· “E-mail Daily news”-private online newspaper. Editor-in-chief: Ganbold.


Mongol TV, which is only nation wide, is connected to Intelsat system from April 1999 and has a possibility to broadcast 24 hours. Other three TV stations broadcasting daily news air only in Ulaanbaatar and its suburb within 70-80 kilometers. The “Burged TV” (Eagle TV) has a copyright to transmit CNN news in translation into Mongolian on channel eight. People in rural area watch Mongolian National TV program as well as local TV studios’ program. Main TV studios are:

· Mongol TV-was State owned, now it is on wait –and-see policy to be converted to public TV.

· Ulaanbaatar Broadcast System (UBS) belongs to Capital City municipality office.

· Eagle TV- Mongolian American Joint Venture Company.

· 25 channel-owned by Mongol news company, commercial

· RGB-the first commercial TV in Darkhan, the second big city of Mongolia, running since 1995

Moreover several cable TV are running in the cities like Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan and Erdenet which allow people to see American CNN, CBSN, Japanese NHK, German DW, Russian ORT, France Press International, Italian RAI and Chinese CCTV etc.


Radio is most popular medium in the least-densely-populated Mongolia. Herdsmen living in rural area without having TV sets and getting newspapers can listen to radio news, of course, if they have batteries for their receivers. Mongolian Radio broadcasts for about eighteen hours a day on a network of transmitters throughout the country. The second biggest radiostation is “Durvun Uul”. Last years more than five FM radiostations in Ulaanbaatar and 20 in local places started to broadcast their programs. Main radio stations are:

· Mongolian radio is also on wait-and-see policy to become public station. Established in 1931. 18 hours program a day.

· “Durvun Uul “(Four Mountains)-owned by Ulaanbaatar Municipality office. 14 hours program a day.

· FM 102,5-the first private radiostation since 1995. 18 hours program a day

· Khokh tenger (Blue Sky)-the second channel of Mongolian Radio. 12 hours program a day.

· FM 104-owned by private newspaper “Toli” (Mirror) since 1997. 17 hours program a day.

· “Shine dolgion” (New Volume)-private. Since 1998. 20 hours program a day.

FM radios mostly broadcast music and commercial but rarely news.


MONTSAME, which is only news agency in Mongolia, was state run. This agency provides local and international news for local media market. Now the Parliament is going to discuss a law related to change the status of this agency. MONTSAME was established in 1918. This agency has relationship with Reuters, Hinhua, Kyodo news and ITAR-TASS agencies for a long time.

Training of journalists

In addition to Mongolian National University which was only one place to receive a journalism degree in Mongolia before 1990, there are now around ten journalism departments in various higher education institutions in Ulaanbaatar. But most are extremely small with ten to twenty students each. Nevertheless, the journalism courses are quite primitive and lack of teaching materials and equipment. That is why Mongolian media is still short of trained journalists and managers.

The Press Institute of Mongolia, established in the framework of the “Free Press” project implemented by Danish International Development Agency, conducts short and long-term courses for working journalists as the mid-career training center.

Is Mongolian Media Free?

Is Mongolian media free? Answers on this question will vary like yes and no. According to the law, yes, Mongolian media is free. But by introducing to the content of news of some newspapers, radio and TV, it is difficult to say Mongolia has free media.

Compare to other Central Asian countries now Mongolia towards in development of free press in the region. In 1995, on the international media seminar in Ulaanbaatar one journalist from Kirgizstan said “How nice, you, Mongolian journalists can criticize the President. In my country we can not do such thing. We should put the President’s picture in each front page of newspaper.” At that time in Mongolia, even the state owned media could criticize the President and Parliament members that was a surprise for our colleagues from Central Asia.

Now Mongolia has no state owned media organization. So called Freedom of Press and Information Law, passed on August 28, 1998, says “State organizations are forbidden to have their own media organizations” and “Establishment and activities of the organizations, taking control of information, published and broadcast by media outlets, should not be financed by the state”.

History to adopt this law was quite long. Mongolia had rapid political and economical changes starting democratic movement in 1989: smooth resign of former communist leaders, establishment of multiparty system, Presidential and Parliament democratic elections, and transition to market economy. But the changes in transition from propaganda media to free independent media are going very slowly. Main reason to engage media liberalization process is related to the Government, which had been kept two daily newspapers and Radio, TV stations under its control for nine years. A partisanship is a trait for journalists from countries in transition period. The politicized journalists taking part of one side were another reason to engage the liberalization of media. But politicians and journalists both understood the importance of liberalization of media after several years fighting against each other through the media. There were several attempts to have a law on Freedom of Press: three drafts of law had been submitted to the Parliament within six years and more than ten seminars had been conducted for journalists and politicians, in some of which experts from foreign countries were involved. Finally the Parliament adopted the latest of the three drafts of law almost without any discussion.

The Freedom of Press and Information Law has brought several changes.

First, The Government stopped to give money from the state budget to two big daily newspapers. One was the “Ardyn erkh” (People’s right) which belonged to Parliament. Actually this newspaper did not get money from State last two years of its existence because by getting a lot of money from advertisement the newspaper already had became self sufficient. Ardyn erkh was the thirtieth biggest profitable entity by income amidst 126 largest companies to be privatized before 2000 all over the country. Another newspaper called “Zasgiin medee” (Government news) belonged to the Government cabinet. However Zasgiin medee was not a profitable company as Ardyn erkh was, but it had got large amount of money annually to cover all expenses from the State budget.

Second, The Government decided to set up share holding companies based on property the former two newspapers had and then to sell their shares to Mongolian journalists on auction. Before the Government invested a great amount of money to buildings, printing houses and computer equipment of both newspapers. According to the Government resolution from July 14, 1999, 40 percent of shares will be sold to the journalists who had been working for these newspapers since their establishment and 60 percent of shares will be sold to journalists from other media organizations.

Third, The editorial staff of these two above-mentioned newspapers established private news companies and started to publish newspapers under the changed names since January 1999. Instead of Ardyn erkh people receive “Udriin sonin” (Daily newspaper), instead of Zasgiin medee they receive Zyyny medee (Century news).

Fourth, before starting to publish new newspapers they swapped their editors. B.Tsenddoo (member of Mongolian Social Democratic Party), who was working as an editor-in-chief of former “Zasgiin medee” came to new “Udriin sonin” as a deputy editor. B.Ganbold (member of Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party), worked, as a deputy editor of “Ardyn erkh” is now an editor-in-chief of Zyyny medee. In this way political parties which have representatives in the Parliament are keeping now their influence on media.

Fifth, Around 30 middle and small newspapers owned by the local Governor’s offices and the Ministries completely stopped to run since January 1, this year. The reason is the same, according to the law; the government should not finance any other news outlets.

There are several things that the Freedom of Press and Information Law could not change.

Mongolian Radio and Mongol TV, which are only nation wide broadcasters, are still fully financing from State budget. But they are now in doubtful circumstances in terms of status. Since the editors, reporters and producers get their salaries from Government they can not change the content of their news production as required by public journalism. Although the law clearly says that they should become public stations, the politicians and journalists did not find a way to make them public. In April, when the first draft of Public TV and radio regulation had been discussed at Parliament session, the parliament members had a suggestion to nominate half of the board directors from politicians. It raised a big discussion among the journalists. Fortunately, this draft was not approved by Parliament. Mongolian Radio and TV staffers still are continuing to broadcast as they did before as State owned media organizations while waiting for their new regulation to become public. The former director of Mongol TV said on the seminar at Press Institute “As soon as the Parliament proves the new regulation for public TV the Mongol TV would be restructured and the staffers would change the content of program”. The Parliament does not expedite to approve this regulation. The regulation of public Radio and TV had been taken from agenda of Parliament’s spring session once. Now the discussion of this regulation is in the agenda of Parliament’s fall session. But it does not mean the regulation will be discussed soon because weekly plenary meetings of Parliament session is always canceled due to low attendance of Parliament Members.

After passing law, even the former newspapers have new titles the content of news is not changed. It is still state oriented. The journalists working there rely on sources who are mostly state officials as before. That is way newspapers still are bias. The lay out reminds the previous state newspapers, too. Even they said in their advertisement on circulation that they intend to keep tradition of former Ardyn erkh newspaper. There is a paradox. Free independent newspaper intends to continue a line of State owned newspaper. It is because the newspaper is issuing by old staff of journalists starting from the managers down to ordinary local journalists. Leah Kohlenberg, the American journalist who was working in Mongolia in 1998-1999, said, “If the same people who used to work for state newspapers are publishing these new newspapers, the content won’t be changed unless they change their mind. But it is difficult to change mind of people.”

The law did not bring good things to have free access to information. The Professor Stuart Loory from Missouri School of journalism, who conducted a training course for Mongolian journalists at the end of September 1999, emphasized that access of information is important problem facing Mongolian journalists now. Yes, Mongolian journalists suffer from no access to Government information for many years. By Constitution from 1992 every Mongolian citizen has right to search, find and deliver any information he/she needs. Mongolian officials always violate this statement of Constitution. It was exceeded when the state newspapers were existed. The officials had an unwritten rule that they should give information only to reporters from State owned newspapers. Now this discrimination of journalists by the officials are still existing because the journalists from previous state newspapers are continuing the philosophy of state press and working style of reporters for state newspapers.

A year ago Mongolian Press Institute did a survey on legal situation of media among politicians, journalists and audience. Two third of respondents emphasized the need of special lawsuit saying that the officials should provide the information to citizens. It is easy to make a law and law changes something. But there many things that will not have been changed by law. Especially, our mind. Mongolian journalist’s examples show that if journalists think like politicians or officials they can not be journalists. To be journalists we should think in different way. At least we should not be belonged to any party and business group. To have a really free press in own country the journalists should be not only open minded but also responsible.

Last News on Media Situation: New Research into Media Ethics

D.Gantug, a journalist studied in several European countries carried out a news research on legal environment and ethics in Mongolian journalism. His research contains nine and half years libel cases and court material. In libel cases which journalists lost, it was discovered that they had not done their job properly. Nearly 50 percent of journalists are not trained as journalists and they do not know journalistic routine. The researcher concluded, “If Mongolia does not start to implement some ethical guidelines or some kind of self-control system, then the Mongolian press will once again face legal restrictions on press freedom.” To conclude that he mentioned over 200 restricting laws on press freedom in the UK.

How people respond on breaking news?

According to survey carried out by Press Institute of Mongolia, 69.3 percent of readers consider important political news, 37.9-economical news, 37.2 legal (crime reporting), and 38 percent-international news.

People like to blame the Government and politicians if there is domestic breaking news, for example, airplane crash, price increasing, even natural disaster happened. But some people’s attitude is changing even though journalists sometimes give very opinionated news. This change is in accordance with education.

If there is international breaking news people wait and look up how Government responds. After publishing the Government’s memorandum or official letter newspapers start to write the government did wrong or right. If the Government keeps a silence it will be more big issue of discussion. In every day conversations about wars and conflicts in regions, people usually blame superpowers but media institutions do not comment like that. International news in Mongolian media is limited by translating news from giant media organizations of several countries which always confuse the Mongolian audience because those news pieces are dedicated totally different readers, viewers and listeners.

Ongoing news topics:

· Investigation of assassination S.Zorig, the leader of Mongolian Democratic Revolution

· Three Parliament members convicted for corruption

· Bank situation

· Natural disaster caused by early heavy snowfall

· Social issues like poverty and street children

Upcoming news:

· Parliament election which will be hold in June 2000

· Privatization of most valuable companies

· Bank restructuring

· Health care reform

Foreign Media Representatives in Mongolia

There are nine foreign media bureaus in Ulaanbaatar. Two are from Japan, two-from China, three-from Russia, one-from Britain and one- from US. Because of language barrier most of them recruited Mongolian journalists or foreign journalists who know Mongolian.

1. Asahi newspaper (Japan). Mongolian journalist Lamjav is a representative. Tel: 458987

2. Hinhua agency (China) Three Chinese journalists who know Mongolian work in team. Bureau chief: Li Ja Hua. Tel: 322778

3. ITAR-TASS agency (Russia) Mr. Denisovich who knows Mongolian is a representative. Tel: 320117

4. Jin Min Jibao newspaper (China) Mongolian journalist Ochir is a representative. Tel: 321180

5. Kyodo news agency (Japan) Mongolian journalist Namchin is a representative. Tel: 458373

6. Reuters agency (Britain) Irya Halash (Swedish lady) who knows Mongolian is a chief of a bureau. Other three Mongolian journalists work for the Reuters. Tel: 312565

7. Ria Novosti agency (Russia) Mr. Altman knows Russian as well as English. Tel: 310142

8. United States Information Service. Chief is Tom Carmachael. Two other Mongolian ladies work as media contact people. Tel: 312376

9. Vostochnaya Sibirskaya Pravda newspaper (Russia) Mr. Boldokhonov knows Mongolian because he is Byryat Mongolian. Tel:452050

The foreign media bureaus except USIS and Hinhua rent apartments for office use because apartments are cheap. For example, two room apartment cost varies $10 to$200.

Moreover, NHK and BBC send their TV crews to make special program about Mongolia at least once a year. DW and Australian TV have contracts to train journalists and to prepare joint program with Mongol TV and Mongolian radio. CNN bureau in Beijing is in charge of coverage about Mongolia. Therefore CNN reporters come to Mongolia time to time.

How to Get Mongolian Visa?

Diplomatic representatives abroad and Honorary counsels of Mongolia have the rights to issue to foreign citizens Mongolian visas. No official or private invitation is needed for a foreign citizen (except the citizens of Russia and China) applying for a Mongolian visa, If the duration of the visitor’s stay does not exceed one month.

Visa will be issued within 24 hours.

· Citizens of Poland, Kazakhstan, do not require a visa for a visit not exceeding three months.

· Citizens of Malaysia, Israel, do not need a visa for visit not exceeding one month.

· Citizens of Philippines are allowed to enter Mongolia for a visit not exceeding three weeks.

· Citizens of Singapore do not need a visa for visit not exceeding two weeks.

· Citizens of People’s Republic of China, Vietnam, Bulgaria and Romania, who has diplomatic and service passports, do not require a visa for visits to Mongolia.

· Citizens of Russia, Laos, Yugoslavia, Czech, Slovak, who has diplomatic and service passports, do not require a visa for visits not exceeding three months.

· Citizens of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea, Thailand, Hungary, Turkey, who has diplomatic and service passports, do not need a visa for visits not exceeding one month.

· Citizens of India shall have Mongolian visa without visa application and visa fee.

Foreign nationals from other countries, which has no agreement on relaxing visa regime on the basis of reciprocity wishing to pay a visit to Mongolia for more than 30 days, should have an official or private invitation. The addresses where you can obtain visas Mongolian Diplomatic Missions

Issuance and Extension of Mongolian Visa

1. Visa Section of the Administrative Division of the Ministry of External Relations of Mongolia issues all types of visa.

2. Mongolian Embassies, Consular and other Diplomatic missions abroad issue all types of Mongolian visas except the exit visa.

3. For travelers, who want to make a transit trip through Mongolia by vehicles, any other means of transport or trekking transit visas will be issued after ascertaining by competent Officials the means of transportation, port of entry and exit, and whether the traveler will be under the care or protection of a Mongolian organization during his or her journey.

4. 30 days entry and exit visa as well as transit visa may be granted at the port of entry by frontier guards on basis of the visa of the country of destination, confirmed travel tickets or in Light of the timetable of the traveler.

5. Honorary Consuls of Mongolia will issue visa on the approval of the Ministry of External Relations.

6. Final decision concerning the issuance of a visa will be taken within 24 hours from date of application for visa.

7. Any foreigner visiting Mongolia up to 30 days will receive Mongolian visa without any delay on presenting an invitation from the receiving organization or company. In certain cases, If it is found necessary, foreign citizens will be granted visa for a brief stay of few days in Mongolia without the invitations mentioned above. Those seeking employment opportunities, to study, to do research work, to immigrate to Mongolia will be granted entry visa only on the basis of the approval of the competent Authorities concerned.

8. Foreigners arriving from countries where, there is no Mongolian diplomatic missions, consular offices or Honorary Consuls and for those visitors on official mission, who had Difficulties in receiving in time the visa, entry visa may be issued at any open port of entry.

9. Foreign citizens, unable to leave the country within 30 days, should address 3 days before the expiry date to the Ministry of External Relations for extension of their visas and present The reasons for the extension. On that basis the Ministry of External Relations may extend the visa for an another 30 days.

10. Foreign citizens receiving a new passport can transfer the valid Mongolian visa from the old to the new passport.

11. Mongolian entry and exit visas are valid for three months from the date of their issue.

12. Duration of the visa starts from the date of entry into Mongolia.

13. Fees for entry-exit, exit and entry visa:

Normal urgent

$25 $50

14. Multiple entry-exit, multiple exit-entry visas of Mongolia valid from 6 months up to a year will be issued to those who by the nature of one’s official duty travels often. The applicant for this type of visa should present the following documents:

1. Official letter stating the reason for travels of the foreigner

2. Copy of the Certificate of the organization or economic entity

Fees normal urgent

6 month $ 65 $130

1 year $ 130 $ 260

15. Those who get entry visas get also exit visas.

Fees normal urgent
$ 20 $ 40

For extension of visa:

Fees normal urgent

For 1-st week
(1-7 days) $ 15 $ 30

From 8th day $ 2 $ 4

How to Get Accreditation in Mongolia?

There is a special regulation for journalists willing to work on regular bases and journalists wishing to come temporary for the coverage. This regulation was approved on January 2, 1996.

Foreign journalists wishing to work or visit Mongolia will submit an official request to the Press and Information Department of the Ministry of External Relations of Mongolia for its consideration and subsequent decision.

The journalist who will work on regular bases in Mongolia in addition to the official request should submit his/her curriculum vitae and brief introduction of own media organization. The Press and Information Department of the Ministry of External Relations will respond within one month.

The correspondents of foreign media institutions and their family members should be registered within 10 days at the Press and Information Department of the Ministry of External Relations.

Press and Information Department will issue to foreign journalists a regular or temporary accreditation card for the duration of their stay upon their arrival in Mongolia.

Foreign journalists coming to Mongolia on an agreement with other organizations will be issued a temporary accreditation card by Press and Information Department of the Ministry of External Relations on the official request of the host organization.

A temporary accreditation card will be issued to freelance journalists, who have a document notifying them to be freelancer and who received prior permission to visit Mongolia.

A temporary accreditation card will be issued to a foreign television team making coverage (non-commercial) on political and economic situation in Mongolia upon submission of their contract or agreement with the Mongolian television or any other relevant organizations.

In all cases other than those mentioned above, a journalist to carry out his or her professional activities should apply for and receive a temporary accreditation card. Foreign journalists without a temporary accreditation card will be considered as having no official permission to carry out their journalistic activities in Mongolia.

Foreign journalists will fill in an application form and provide two photos of passport size and 10 US$ as a fee for a temporary accreditation card.

Foreign teams wishing to make films (documentary or TV etc.) In Mongolia on a commercial basis will submit their request to the Ministry of Enlightenment to obtain the permission.

(Please type or write in block letters)

Name______________ ______________ _____________
(Family name) (Middle name) (Given name)

Date of birth _________________ Male Female

Place of birth _________________

Nationality _________________

Home address ________________________ Tel___________

Name of news medium ________________________

Address of the above ________________________ Tel___________

Nationality of medium ________________________

Address in Mongolia ________________________ Tel___________

Type of medium (Please tick appropriate box)

Type of medium


1. Wire service



2.Magazine reporter


3.Commentator reporter


4.Movie or TV camera person


5.Still camera person


6.Technical staff

7.Photo Agency




9.Others (Please describe)

Passport ______________ ________________ _____________
Number issuing authority Date of issue

Visa ______________ ________________ _____________
Visa status Date of issue Date of expiration

I hereby apply for accreditation to cover the...

Signature of applicant_________________


(Please write the other side of the paper)

Foreign Embassies and Representatives of International Organizations in Mongolia

Foreign Embassies


15-th district 8 Apartment 42

Trade Representative Mr.Shkutnik


POB 702, Olympiin Gudamj 8, Ulaanbaatar Tel: 329721, Telex 220 BGTIS
Ambassador H.E. Mr. EDVIN SUGAREV


Enkh taivny gydamj-5 Peace and Friendship Palace. Tel: 328285, Fax:328285

Honorary Council

China People's Republic

C.P.O. Box 672, Zaluuchuudyn Urgun Chuluu 5, Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Tel. 320955, 323940, Fax 311943

Ambassador H.E.Mr. QI CHIJIA


C.P.O.Box 710, Negdsen Undestnii Gudamj 5 ,Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Tel. 327709, 327708, Telex 79228


Czech Republic

C.P.O.Box 665, Diplomatic Apartments 95, Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Tel. 321886, 326661, Fax. 323791, Telex 255 OBZA MH

Ambassador H.E. Mr. JOSEF FASS (res. in Beijing)
Charge d` Affaires Mr. ZDENEK OKUNEK

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

C.P.O.Box 671, Negdsen Undestnii gudamj 12, Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Tel. 322795, 323458, Telex 250

Ambassador H.E. Mr. JONG JANG HYON


B.P.687, 13 Ulaanbaatar Mongolia Tel.312118, 99114424, Fax.324519



C.P.O.Box 708, Negdsen Undestnii gudamj 7, Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Tel. 323325, 323915, Fax. 323905

Ambassador H.E.Mr. JURGEN ELIAS


C.P.O.Box 668, Enkhtaivany gudamj 1, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tel. 323973, 320972, Fax. 311793, Telex 79322

Ambassador H.E. Mr.BELA TOROCSIK


C.P.O. Box 691, Zaluuchuudyn Urgun Chuluu 10, 11th Micro District, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tel. 329522, 329524, Fax. 329532,

Ambassador H.E. Mr. KUSHOK BAKULA


C.P.O. Box 1011, Olympiin gudamj 6, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tel. 320777, Fax. 313332

Ambassador H.E. Mr. SHINJI KUBOTA


District Chingeltei, 6th MicroDistrict, Diplomatic Building 95, Apartment 11, P.O. 38, Box 291, Tel: 312240

Charge d` Affaires Mr. VALIKHAN KONURBAYEV

Republic of Korea

C.P.O. Box 1039, Olympiin gudamj 10, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tel. 321548, 310153, Fax. 311157

Ambassador H.E. Mr. HWANG KIL SHIN

Lao P.D.R

C.P.O. Box 1030, Ihk Toiruu 59, Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Tel. 326440, 329898, Telex 79251



C.P.O. Box 661, Enkhtaivany gudamj A-6, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tel. 326836, 327071, Fax. 327018, Telex 251 UB



Enkh Taivny gudamj 5,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Tel: 313992

Ambassador H.E. Mr. VAROL OZKOCAK

United Kingdom

C.P.O. Box 703, Enkh taivany gudamj 30, Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Tel. 358133, 358238, Fax. 358036, Telex 79261



C.P.O. Box 1021, Ikh Toiruu 59/1, Ulaanbaatar 13, Mongolia
Tel. 329095,329606, Fax. 320776


Viet Nam

Enkhtaivany Urgun Chuluu 47, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Tel. 358923, 358917, Telex 249

Ambassador H.E. Mr. VU VAN VACH


C.P.O. Box 700, Diplomatic Apartment 95, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tel. 322380, Fax. 325597, Telex 259Yu amb

Charge d` Affaires Mr. RAIKO GRIGICH


Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland P.O. Box 176, Fin-00161, Helsinki
Tel. (358-9) 134151, Fax. 13415798

Ambassador H.E. Mr. TAISTO Tolvanen

Representatives of International Organizations


Resident Representative Mr.Douglas GARDNER

Mailing Address: UNDP, C.P.O. 49/207, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Street Address: 7 Erhuu Street, Ulaanbaatar Tel. 327585, 321539 Fax. 326221


Resident Representative Mr.Douglas GARDNER

Mailing Address: UNFPA Representative, P.O.Box 49/207 Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Street Address: 7 Erkhuu Street, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Tel. 323365; Fax: 326221


Resident Representative Mr. U.H. Susantha de SILVA

WHO Representative,Post Box 663, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Tel. 327870 Fax. 327870
Street Address: Government Building No.8 3rd Floor, 3 Karl Marx Street , Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia


Resident Representative Mr. Geoffrey OESTREICHER

Room 257, Government House, Ulaanbaatar Tel. 329153, 323802 Fax. 312181


Asst.Representative Ms. Katherine HINTON

Ulaanbaatar-46, Government Building ? 2 Rooms 402-414 Tel. 312201, 312183 Fax. 327313 Mailing Address: UNICEF Assistant Representative Sukhbaatar Duureg,
Ulaanbaatar-46, Mongolia


Street Address: Trade Union`s Building, 2nd Floor, Room 214 Sukhbaatar Square 3,
Ulaanbaatar-11, Mongolia
Mailing Address: C/o UNDP Resident Representative P.O. Box 49/207, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Useful web sites

Mongolia Online

Mongolia Today

Discover Mongolia

Mongolian Government

Ministry of External Relations of Mongolia

MongoleiOnline Informationen zur Mongolei

Mongolian Airlines

Mongolian News Agency

Embassy of Mongolia in the USA

David Edwards, photographer who worked in Mongolia

Books about Mongolia in English

In Ellis library I found around fifteen books related to Mongolia and Mongolian study. Some of them were in Russian. Although most of them are written in the fifties to seventies, they might be interesting those who like to compare the past and the present. From the books in Elvis library, I want to recommend to journalists going to Mongolia the following two books.

1. Mongols in the twentieth century, by Robert A.Rupen. 1964

2. Mongolia. Search of Marco Polo and other Adventures, by Silvio Misheli. 1964

Other books to read

1. The Lost Country, by Jasper Becker

2. Lonely Planet’s Mongolia. Guide. Travel information. 1996

3. In Search of Genghis Khan, by Tim Severin

Reference book

Human Development Report of Mongolia, by UNDP. 1997

Prepared by A.Oyungerel