Энэ жил орж байгаа гадаадын сэтгүүлзүйн ангийн оюутнуудад 2000 онд өөрийнхөө бичиж байсан танилцуулгыг харуулмаар санагдлаа. Монгол орон, Монголын хэвлэл мэдээллийн тухай энэ танилцуулгыг Олон улсыг сурвалжлахуй (International Reporting) хичээл дээр бэлтгэж байсан юм. Монголд очих гадаадын сэтгүүлчдэд зориулсан гарын авлага маягаар бэлтгэсэн энэ материал та нарын хичээл дээрээ бэлтгэх илтгэлд санаа өгөх болов уу гэж бодлоо.
Presentation on Mongolia & Mongolian Media
In the International Issues Reporting class, where discussions how to cover international news for audience in abroad and journalists own country were often raised, I deeply understood one thing. A journalist who is going to another country either as a representative of certain media organization or as a freelancer should carefully study the destination country and its media situation in advance. He/she needs not only basic information about the country but also some more detailed information in order to be prepared to live and work there for a while. In this meaning, the book “The World on a String” by Al Goodman and John Pollack presenting practical experiences of many stringers is very useful for international journalists. But above mentioned book does not contain any single example about foreign journalists who worked in
Although some people say that
Small, but Important Explanation about
When I say that I am from
Completely landlocked between two large neighbors -
Remarkably long frontiers with the
Lying in the center of the Asian continent,
One of the highest countries in the world with one of
The high central Asian mountain ranges surrounding
A remarkably sunny country, enjoying 250-300 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies.
Rainfall & Snow
Snow and rainfall are very low, the climate being arid. However, enough rain usually occurs in July and August to swell rivers, and snow blizzards can occur in winter. The Highest peaks have small glaciers.
Mountains dominate two-thirds of the country.
Nearly 10% is forest, mainly conifers in the northern region next to
Mongolian (noun and adjective).
2.3 million people, and one of the lowest population densities in the world. 1.5 inhabitants per 1sq.km.The death rate are below the world average. The life expectancy is 64.6 years for women and 62.1 for men.
85% Mongol, mostly Khalkha Mongol. Also 7%
Mongolian Language is the First Language. Over 90% Khalkha Mongol (‘Mongolian Language’). The script is Cyrillic due to Russian influence but a switch back to traditional script has begin in Schools.Second Language Russian is spoken by many graduates, with many Mongolians formerly educated in Russia. English is replacing Russian as the second Language. Many graduates speak German and a little Spanish and French is spoken. Chinese not widely understood except in border areas.
High, in excess of 90%.
94% Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism, also elements of Shamanism. 6% Muslim (mainly in the southwest). Some Christian churches started to work since 1992 by support of foreigners.
1921 final independence from
1924, 1936, 1960 and new constitution in 1992, some revision 1996.
21 aimags (provinces), the capital city (
Gross Domestic Product
GDP per head of population was 359
Mineral Output & Reserves
Energy Output & Reserves
Agriculture accounts for more than a third of GDP and is the livelihood for half the population. Agricultural land is mainly permanent pasture for livestock and hay fogger. However, there is significant output of wheat, oats, barley and vegetables.
Industry also accounts for around a third of GDP, especially minerals (mainly copper), coal, animal products, building materials, food beverages etc.
Copper and molybdenum concentrates, fluorspar, cashmere, wool, hides and skins.
Petroleum products, industrial equipment, consumer goods.
Mongolia is a major recipient of donor aid notably loans from the Asian Development Bank, bilateral aid from many countries (especially from Japan, Germany, Denmark and USA) and grants for technical assistance, such as the European Union’s Tacis Program.
Currency is the Tugrug (MNT). 1 USD=1069 MNT
Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time National
Weight and Measures
The metric system
New year: December 31-January 1
Tsagaan sar-Lunar news year: 3 days in January or February set according to Lunar Calendar
Day of Mother and Child: June 1
National Holiday-Naadam Festival: July 11-13
Country and area code
Facts about Mongolian Media
There are more than 838 newspapers, 51 TV studios, 24 radio stations, and one news agency in
Most important law related to recent changes in media is the Freedom Press and Information Law adopted in August 1998. (See more explanation in the following comments “Is Mongolian Media free?”)
In fact, among the huge number of registered newspapers around 80 daily and weekly newspapers appear permanently. Print journalists face many obstacles caused by poor economy and infrastructure in the country. Most newspapers are published and distributed in urban area. Many local newspapers shut down due to financial situation and not having printing houses. Newspaper print is imported from
· “Udriin sonin” (Daily news) clearly supports Democratic Coalition, which represents a majority in the Parliament and leads the Government.
· “Zuuny medee” (Century news) clearly supports Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, which is minority in the Parliament and opposition to the Government.
· “Unuudur” (today) is owned by Mongol News Company and clearly supports the President.
· “Mongolyn medee” (Mongolian news) is owned by “Erel” business company and clearly supports Mongolian Democratic Socialist Party.
Most independent newspapers are tabloids. They are issued weekly or once in ten days due to financial reason and not sufficient number of staff. Most popular independent newspapers are “Seruuleg” (Alarm), “Khumuus” (People) and “Mongolyn neg udur” (One day of
Newspapers published in English:
· “Mongol Messenger”-MONTSAME news agency’s weekly newspaper. English editor: Michael Kohn. E-mail:email@example.com
· “UB Post”-owned by Mongol news company. English editor: Jessica Daccy. Tel: 352462, 352470
· “Business Times”-a newspaper of Mongolian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. E-mail:Monchamb@magicnet.mn
· “E-mail Daily news”-private online newspaper. Editor-in-chief: Ganbold. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Mongol TV, which is only nation wide, is connected to Intelsat system from April 1999 and has a possibility to broadcast 24 hours. Other three TV stations broadcasting daily news air only in
· Mongol TV-was State owned, now it is on wait –and-see policy to be converted to public TV.
· Ulaanbaatar Broadcast System (UBS) belongs to
· Eagle TV- Mongolian American Joint Venture Company. E-mail:email@example.com
· 25 channel-owned by Mongol news company, commercial
· RGB-the first commercial TV in Darkhan, the second big city of
Moreover several cable TV are running in the cities like
Radio is most popular medium in the least-densely-populated
· Mongolian radio is also on wait-and-see policy to become public station. Established in 1931. 18 hours program a day.
· “Durvun Uul “(
· FM 102,5-the first private radiostation since 1995. 18 hours program a day
· Khokh tenger (Blue Sky)-the second channel of Mongolian Radio. 12 hours program a day.
· FM 104-owned by private newspaper “Toli” (Mirror) since 1997. 17 hours program a day.
· “Shine dolgion” (New Volume)-private. Since 1998. 20 hours program a day.
FM radios mostly broadcast music and commercial but rarely news.
MONTSAME, which is only news agency in
Training of journalists
In addition to
The Press Institute of Mongolia, established in the framework of the “Free Press” project implemented by Danish International Development Agency, conducts short and long-term courses for working journalists as the mid-career training center.
Is Mongolian Media Free?
Is Mongolian media free? Answers on this question will vary like yes and no. According to the law, yes, Mongolian media is free. But by introducing to the content of news of some newspapers, radio and TV, it is difficult to say
Compare to other Central Asian countries now
History to adopt this law was quite long.
The Freedom of Press and Information Law has brought several changes.
First, The Government stopped to give money from the state budget to two big daily newspapers. One was the “Ardyn erkh” (People’s right) which belonged to Parliament. Actually this newspaper did not get money from State last two years of its existence because by getting a lot of money from advertisement the newspaper already had became self sufficient. Ardyn erkh was the thirtieth biggest profitable entity by income amidst 126 largest companies to be privatized before 2000 all over the country. Another newspaper called “Zasgiin medee” (Government news) belonged to the Government cabinet. However Zasgiin medee was not a profitable company as Ardyn erkh was, but it had got large amount of money annually to cover all expenses from the State budget.
Second, The Government decided to set up share holding companies based on property the former two newspapers had and then to sell their shares to Mongolian journalists on auction. Before the Government invested a great amount of money to buildings, printing houses and computer equipment of both newspapers. According to the Government resolution from July 14, 1999, 40 percent of shares will be sold to the journalists who had been working for these newspapers since their establishment and 60 percent of shares will be sold to journalists from other media organizations.
Third, The editorial staff of these two above-mentioned newspapers established private news companies and started to publish newspapers under the changed names since January 1999. Instead of Ardyn erkh people receive “Udriin sonin” (Daily newspaper), instead of Zasgiin medee they receive Zyyny medee (Century news).
Fourth, before starting to publish new newspapers they swapped their editors. B.Tsenddoo (member of Mongolian Social Democratic Party), who was working as an editor-in-chief of former “Zasgiin medee” came to new “Udriin sonin” as a deputy editor. B.Ganbold (member of Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party), worked, as a deputy editor of “Ardyn erkh” is now an editor-in-chief of Zyyny medee. In this way political parties which have representatives in the Parliament are keeping now their influence on media.
Fifth, Around 30 middle and small newspapers owned by the local Governor’s offices and the Ministries completely stopped to run since January 1, this year. The reason is the same, according to the law; the government should not finance any other news outlets.
There are several things that the Freedom of Press and Information Law could not change.
Mongolian Radio and Mongol TV, which are only nation wide broadcasters, are still fully financing from State budget. But they are now in doubtful circumstances in terms of status. Since the editors, reporters and producers get their salaries from Government they can not change the content of their news production as required by public journalism. Although the law clearly says that they should become public stations, the politicians and journalists did not find a way to make them public. In April, when the first draft of Public TV and radio regulation had been discussed at Parliament session, the parliament members had a suggestion to nominate half of the board directors from politicians. It raised a big discussion among the journalists. Fortunately, this draft was not approved by Parliament. Mongolian Radio and TV staffers still are continuing to broadcast as they did before as State owned media organizations while waiting for their new regulation to become public. The former director of Mongol TV said on the seminar at Press Institute “As soon as the Parliament proves the new regulation for public TV the Mongol TV would be restructured and the staffers would change the content of program”. The Parliament does not expedite to approve this regulation. The regulation of public Radio and TV had been taken from agenda of Parliament’s spring session once. Now the discussion of this regulation is in the agenda of Parliament’s fall session. But it does not mean the regulation will be discussed soon because weekly plenary meetings of Parliament session is always canceled due to low attendance of Parliament Members.
After passing law, even the former newspapers have new titles the content of news is not changed. It is still state oriented. The journalists working there rely on sources who are mostly state officials as before. That is way newspapers still are bias. The lay out reminds the previous state newspapers, too. Even they said in their advertisement on circulation that they intend to keep tradition of former Ardyn erkh newspaper. There is a paradox. Free independent newspaper intends to continue a line of State owned newspaper. It is because the newspaper is issuing by old staff of journalists starting from the managers down to ordinary local journalists. Leah Kohlenberg, the American journalist who was working in Mongolia in 1998-1999, said, “If the same people who used to work for state newspapers are publishing these new newspapers, the content won’t be changed unless they change their mind. But it is difficult to change mind of people.”
The law did not bring good things to have free access to information. The Professor Stuart Loory from
A year ago Mongolian Press Institute did a survey on legal situation of media among politicians, journalists and audience. Two third of respondents emphasized the need of special lawsuit saying that the officials should provide the information to citizens. It is easy to make a law and law changes something. But there many things that will not have been changed by law. Especially, our mind. Mongolian journalist’s examples show that if journalists think like politicians or officials they can not be journalists. To be journalists we should think in different way. At least we should not be belonged to any party and business group. To have a really free press in own country the journalists should be not only open minded but also responsible.
Last News on Media Situation: New Research into Media Ethics
D.Gantug, a journalist studied in several European countries carried out a news research on legal environment and ethics in Mongolian journalism. His research contains nine and half years libel cases and court material. In libel cases which journalists lost, it was discovered that they had not done their job properly. Nearly 50 percent of journalists are not trained as journalists and they do not know journalistic routine. The researcher concluded, “If Mongolia does not start to implement some ethical guidelines or some kind of self-control system, then the Mongolian press will once again face legal restrictions on press freedom.” To conclude that he mentioned over 200 restricting laws on press freedom in the
How people respond on breaking news?
According to survey carried out by Press Institute of Mongolia, 69.3 percent of readers consider important political news, 37.9-economical news, 37.2 legal (crime reporting), and 38 percent-international news.
People like to blame the Government and politicians if there is domestic breaking news, for example, airplane crash, price increasing, even natural disaster happened. But some people’s attitude is changing even though journalists sometimes give very opinionated news. This change is in accordance with education.
If there is international breaking news people wait and look up how Government responds. After publishing the Government’s memorandum or official letter newspapers start to write the government did wrong or right. If the Government keeps a silence it will be more big issue of discussion. In every day conversations about wars and conflicts in regions, people usually blame superpowers but media institutions do not comment like that. International news in Mongolian media is limited by translating news from giant media organizations of several countries which always confuse the Mongolian audience because those news pieces are dedicated totally different readers, viewers and listeners.
Ongoing news topics:
· Investigation of assassination S.Zorig, the leader of Mongolian Democratic Revolution
· Three Parliament members convicted for corruption
· Bank situation
· Natural disaster caused by early heavy snowfall
· Social issues like poverty and street children
· Parliament election which will be hold in June 2000
· Privatization of most valuable companies
· Bank restructuring
· Health care reform
Foreign Media Representatives in
There are nine foreign media bureaus in
1. Asahi newspaper (
2. Hinhua agency (
3. ITAR-TASS agency (
4. Jin Min Jibao newspaper (
5. Kyodo news agency (
6. Reuters agency (
7. Ria Novosti agency (
9. Vostochnaya Sibirskaya Pravda newspaper (
The foreign media bureaus except USIS and Hinhua rent apartments for office use because apartments are cheap. For example, two room apartment cost varies $10 to$200.
Moreover, NHK and BBC send their TV crews to make special program about
How to Get Mongolian Visa?
Diplomatic representatives abroad and Honorary counsels of
Visa will be issued within 24 hours.
· Citizens of
· Citizens of
· Citizens of
· Citizens of
· Citizens of People’s Republic of
· Citizens of
· Citizens of Democratic People’s
· Citizens of
Foreign nationals from other countries, which has no agreement on relaxing visa regime on the basis of reciprocity wishing to pay a visit to Mongolia for more than 30 days, should have an official or private invitation. The addresses where you can obtain visas Mongolian Diplomatic Missions
Issuance and Extension of Mongolian Visa
1. Visa Section of the Administrative Division of the Ministry of External Relations of Mongolia issues all types of visa.
2. Mongolian Embassies, Consular and other Diplomatic missions abroad issue all types of Mongolian visas except the exit visa.
3. For travelers, who want to make a transit trip through
4. 30 days entry and exit visa as well as transit visa may be granted at the port of entry by frontier guards on basis of the visa of the country of destination, confirmed travel tickets or in Light of the timetable of the traveler.
5. Honorary Consuls of
6. Final decision concerning the issuance of a visa will be taken within 24 hours from date of application for visa.
7. Any foreigner visiting
8. Foreigners arriving from countries where, there is no Mongolian diplomatic missions, consular offices or Honorary Consuls and for those visitors on official mission, who had Difficulties in receiving in time the visa, entry visa may be issued at any open port of entry.
9. Foreign citizens, unable to leave the country within 30 days, should address 3 days before the expiry date to the Ministry of External Relations for extension of their visas and present The reasons for the extension. On that basis the Ministry of External Relations may extend the visa for an another 30 days.
10. Foreign citizens receiving a new passport can transfer the valid Mongolian visa from the old to the new passport.
11. Mongolian entry and exit visas are valid for three months from the date of their issue.
12. Duration of the visa starts from the date of entry into
13. Fees for entry-exit, exit and entry visa:
14. Multiple entry-exit, multiple exit-entry visas of
1. Official letter stating the reason for travels of the foreigner
2. Copy of the Certificate of the organization or economic entity
Fees normal urgent
6 month $ 65 $130
1 year $ 130 $ 260
15. Those who get entry visas get also exit visas.
Fees normal urgent
$ 20 $ 40
For extension of visa:
Fees normal urgent
For 1-st week
(1-7 days) $ 15 $ 30
From 8th day $ 2 $ 4
How to Get Accreditation in
Foreign journalists wishing to work or visit
The journalist who will work on regular bases in Mongolia in addition to the official request should submit his/her curriculum vitae and brief introduction of own media organization. The Press and Information Department of the Ministry of External Relations will respond within one month.
The correspondents of foreign media institutions and their family members should be registered within 10 days at the Press and Information Department of the Ministry of External Relations.
Press and Information Department will issue to foreign journalists a regular or temporary accreditation card for the duration of their stay upon their arrival in
Foreign journalists coming to
A temporary accreditation card will be issued to freelance journalists, who have a document notifying them to be freelancer and who received prior permission to visit
A temporary accreditation card will be issued to a foreign television team making coverage (non-commercial) on political and economic situation in
In all cases other than those mentioned above, a journalist to carry out his or her professional activities should apply for and receive a temporary accreditation card. Foreign journalists without a temporary accreditation card will be considered as having no official permission to carry out their journalistic activities in
Foreign journalists will fill in an application form and provide two photos of passport size and 10 US$ as a fee for a temporary accreditation card.
Foreign teams wishing to make films (documentary or TV etc.) In
APPLICATION FOR PRESS ACCREDITATION (example)
(Please type or write in block letters)
Name______________ ______________ _____________
(Family name) (Middle name) (Given name)
Date of birth _________________ Male Female
Place of birth _________________
Home address ________________________ Tel___________
Name of news medium ________________________
Address of the above ________________________ Tel___________
Nationality of medium ________________________
Type of medium (Please tick appropriate box)
Type of medium
1. Wire service
4.Movie or TV camera person
5.Still camera person
9.Others (Please describe)
Passport ______________ ________________ _____________
Number issuing authority Date of issue
Visa ______________ ________________ _____________
Visa status Date of issue Date of expiration
I hereby apply for accreditation to cover the...
Signature of applicant_________________
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
(Please write the other side of the paper)
Foreign Embassies and Representatives of International Organizations in
15-th district 8 Apartment 42
Trade Representative Mr.Shkutnik
POB 702, Olympiin Gudamj 8,
Ambassador H.E. Mr. EDVIN SUGAREV
Enkh taivny gydamj-5 Peace and
. Tel: 328285, Fax:328285 Friendship Palace
Tel. 320955, 323940, Fax 311943
Ambassador H.E.Mr. QI CHIJIA
C.P.O.Box 710, Negdsen Undestnii Gudamj 5 ,
Tel. 327709, 327708, Telex 79228
Ambassador H.E. Mr. ESTEBAN LOBAINO ROMERO
C.P.O.Box 665, Diplomatic
Tel. 321886, 326661, Fax. 323791, Telex 255 OBZA MH
Ambassador H.E. Mr. JOSEF FASS (res. in
Charge d` Affaires Mr. ZDENEK OKUNEK
Democratic People's Republic of
C.P.O.Box 671, Negdsen Undestnii gudamj 12,
Tel. 322795, 323458, Telex 250
Ambassador H.E. Mr. JONG JANG HYON
Ambassador H.E.Mr. JACQUES-OLIVIER MANENT
C.P.O.Box 708, Negdsen Undestnii gudamj 7,
Tel. 323325, 323915, Fax. 323905
Ambassador H.E.Mr. JURGEN ELIAS
C.P.O.Box 668, Enkhtaivany gudamj 1,
Tel. 323973, 320972, Fax. 311793, Telex 79322
Ambassador H.E. Mr.BELA TOROCSIK
Tel. 329522, 329524, Fax. 329532,
Ambassador H.E. Mr. KUSHOK BAKULA
Tel. 320777, Fax. 313332
Ambassador H.E. Mr. SHINJI KUBOTA
District Chingeltei, 6th MicroDistrict, Diplomatic Building 95,
Charge d` Affaires Mr. VALIKHAN KONURBAYEV
Tel. 321548, 310153, Fax. 311157
Ambassador H.E. Mr. HWANG KIL SHIN
Tel. 326440, 329898, Telex 79251
Ambassador H.E.Mr. VANHEUANG VONGVICHIT
Tel. 326836, 327071, Fax. 327018, Telex 251 UB
Ambassador H.E. Mr. NIKOLAI VICTOROVICH PAVLOV
Enkh Taivny gudamj 5,
Ambassador H.E. Mr. VAROL OZKOCAK
Tel. 358133, 358238, Fax. 358036, Telex 79261
Ambassador H.E. Mr. JOHN CLIVE
Tel. 329095,329606, Fax. 320776
Ambassador H.E. Mr. ALPHONSE LA PORTA
Enkhtaivany Urgun Chuluu 47,
Ambassador H.E. Mr. VU VAN VACH
Tel. 322380, Fax. 325597, Telex 259Yu amb
Charge d` Affaires Mr. RAIKO GRIGICH
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of
Tel. (358-9) 134151, Fax. 13415798
Ambassador H.E. Mr. TAISTO Tolvanen
Representatives of International Organizations
Resident Representative Mr.Douglas GARDNER
Mailing Address: UNDP, C.P.O. 49/207,
Resident Representative Mr.Douglas GARDNER
Mailing Address: UNFPA Representative,
Resident Representative Mr. U.H. Susantha de SILVA
Resident Representative Mr. Geoffrey OESTREICHER
Room 257, Government House,
Asst.Representative Ms. Katherine HINTON
Street Address: Trade Union`s Building, 2nd Floor, Room 214 Sukhbaatar Square 3,
Mailing Address: C/o UNDP Resident Representative P.O. Box 49/207, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Useful web sites
Ministry of External Relations of
MongoleiOnline Informationen zur Mongolei
Mongolian News Agency
David Edwards, photographer who worked in
In Ellis library I found around fifteen books related to
1. Mongols in the twentieth century, by Robert A.Rupen. 1964
Other books to read
1. The Lost Country, by Jasper Becker
2. Lonely Planet’s
3. In Search of Genghis Khan, by Tim Severin
Human Development Report of
Prepared by A.Oyungerel